PUD (Gastric vs. Duodenal ulcer)


DU (most common)
• Burning ‘right’ epigastric pain 90 min to 3 h after meals
• often nocturnal
• relieved by food intake (as pyloric antrum closes, preventing the gastric juice from passing to duo.)

• Burning ‘left’ epigastric pain usu. after food (within 1 hr)
• made worse by or unrelated to food
• anorexia, food aversion, weight loss (in 40%)
• great individual variation

DETECTION OF “H. pylori “

1) Detection of ANTIBODIES in serum (inexpensive, preferred when endoscopy is not required)
2) Rapid urease test of ANTRAL BIOPSY (when endoscopy is required)
3) Urea BREATH test generally used to confirm eradication of H. pylori, if necessary


2010 in review

The stats helper monkeys at WordPress.com mulled over how this blog did in 2010, and here’s a high level summary of its overall blog health:

Healthy blog!

The Blog-Health-o-Meter™ reads This blog is on fire!.

Crunchy numbers

Featured image

A helper monkey made this abstract painting, inspired by your stats.

About 3 million people visit the Taj Mahal every year. This blog was viewed about 32,000 times in 2010. If it were the Taj Mahal, it would take about 4 days for that many people to see it.


The busiest day of the year was October 20th with 186 views. The most popular post that day was Obstructive vs Restrictive lung diseases.

Where did they come from?

The top referring sites in 2010 were search.conduit.com, ifreestores.com, search.aol.com, google.com, and medicopedia.blogspot.com.

Some visitors came searching, mostly for renal tubule, proximal convoluted tubule, heart failure, obstructive vs restrictive lung disease, and renal tubules.

Attractions in 2010

These are the posts and pages that got the most views in 2010.


Obstructive vs Restrictive lung diseases January 2009


Renal physiology and diuretics November 2005


Human Diseases caused by Arthropod Parasites July 2006


Success Stories of Paranoid Schizophrenia Cases June 2006


Delirium: Three Types June 2006

USMLE Step 1 Relevant Tips & Mnemonics – [ANATOMY] [Part 1]

  1. Commonest root to multiple upper limb nerves: C6 – common to all UL nerves except ulnar nerve. Consider this root if presented with multiple UL defects.
  2. Hepatoduodenal ligament: contains the portal triad + epiploic foramen of Winslow that separates between the Left Lesser sac & the Rt gReater sac. This ligament is just anterior to the IVC.
  3. Bifurcation of the aorta is at the level of L4 “at L4, you get 4 new arteries (2 internal iliacs & 2 external iliacs!)”
  4. Perforated gastric ulcer will likely erode into the left & right gastric arteries (running on the lesser curvature, the most common site of gastric ulcers).
  5. Indirect inguinal hernia is covered by external and internal spermatic fascia and cremaster, while direct inguinal hernia is covered by external spermatic fascia only.
  6. Right parietal lobe lesion (e.g. dt a right middle cerebral artery stroke) leads to spatial neglect syndrome: agnosia of the contralateral side of the world i.e. the left side.
  7. CN XI arises from the cervical spinal cord, but exits from the medulla oblongata.
  8. The only muscle that opens the mouth is the lateral pterygoid.
  9. In cavernous sinus thrombosis, CN VI is affected first because it courses centrally. This nerve is also affected first in a lateral expansion of a pituitary tumors.
  10. Optic disk atrophy + cupping = glaucoma. Optic disk enlargement + blurred margins = papilledema (increased ICP).

Renal physiology and diuretics : [REVISITED]

I’m presenting here content already posted before, but it has gotten much attention and acclaim from my visitors, so I thought I’d re-publish it. It has also been used in Wikipedia in three articles.

It’s an illustration I’ve made a long time ago on the renal physiology and corresponding diuretics. My visitors liked it so much. One of them, va, used it for his MRCS exam, and another one, khairul Majumder, showed the illustration to the nurses, explaining to them the basics of the renal physiology.


Head over to the original post to view a full-sized version of the illustration, read the detailed description, and be able to comment.